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Applied Research2018-09-19T13:37:46+00:00

ICN Applied Research

The Institute of Child Nutrition, Applied Research Division (ICN, ARD) is located at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. ARD supports the ICN mission by systematically conducting research and development projects that influence child nutrition operational practices. These projects increase knowledge, provide research-based resources, and determine best practices for issues affecting the operation and improvement of child nutrition programs.

ARD primary research threads include operational accountability, customer service, best practices, human resources, wellness, equipment purchasing and facility design and program evaluation.  ARD collaborates with State agency staff, child nutrition professionals, content experts, consultants, and other university faculty to conduct research.  Findings from research projects are disseminated to child nutrition professions through education sessions and posters at state and national conferences; best practice resources and guides; research briefs called “Insights”; technical reports, and manuscripts in peer reviewed journals and child nutrition industry magazines.

ICN ARD research results are used to develop resources and training to promote excellence in Child Nutrition Programs.  User-friendly resources are available, free of charge on the ICN website.

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Lee, Y. M., Kwon, J., Park, E. Wang, Y. and Rushing, K. (2017). Use of Point-of-Service Systems in School Nutrition Programs: Types, Challenges, and Employee Training. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management. 41(2). Retrieved from: https://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Fall_2017/use-of-point-of-service-systems-in-school-nutrition-programs.pdf

Rushing, K. (2017). Essential Key Performance Indicators for School Nutrition Success. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management.  41(2). Retrieved from: https://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Fall_2017/essential-kpIs-for-school-nutrition-program-success.pdf

Cullen, K. W. & Rushing, K (2017). The Team Up for School Nutrition Success Workshop Evaluation Study:

Three Month Results. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management. 41(1). Retrieved from: https://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Spring_2017/The-Team-Up-for-School-Nutrition-Spring2017.pdf

Kwon, J., Lee, Y. M., Park, E. Wang, Y. and Rushing, K. (2017). Free and Reduced-Priced Meal Application and Income Verification Practices in School Nutrition Programs in the United States. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management. 41(1). Retrieved from: https://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Spring_2017/Free-and-Reduced-Price-Meal-Application-Spring2017.pdf

Bergman, E. A., Englund, T., Cashman, L., Ogan, D., Watkins, T., Barbee, M. and Rushing, K. (2016). Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children’s Lunches from School and Home. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management.39(1). Retrieved from: https://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Spring_2016/5-BeverageSelectionsandImpact.pdf

Rushing, K. (2016). School Nutrition Professionals Perceptions of Key Performance Indicators. Journal of Foodservice Management and Education. 10(2). Retrieved from: http://fsmec.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/10-2-Rushing.pdf

Rushing, K., and Johnson, J. T. (Spring, 2015). School Nutrition Professionals’ Usage and Perceptions of USDA Recipes and the Impact of Student Enrollment. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management.39(1). Retrieved from: https://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Spring_2015/869%20Manuscript%20USDA%20recipes%20Print%20Ready%203-6-15.pdf

Bergman, E. A., Saade, C., Shaw, E., Englund, T., Cashman, L., Taylor, K. W., Watkins, T., and Rushing, K. (Fall, 2014). Lunches Selected and Consumed from the National School Lunch Program in Schools Designated as Healthier US Schools Challenge are More Nutritious than Lunches Brought from Home. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management.38(2). Retrieved from: http://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Fall_2014/LunchesSelectedandConsumedfromtheNationalSchoolLunchProgram.pdf

Bergman, E. A., Englund, T., Taylor, K. W., Watkins, T., Schepmann, S., and Rushing, K. (Fall, 2014). School Lunch Before and After Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management.38(2). Retrieved from: http://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/5_News_and_Publications/4_The_Journal_of_Child_Nutrition_and_Management/Fall_2014/SchoolLunchBeforeandAfterImplementationHealthyHungerFreeKidsAct.pdf

Rushing, K. (Fall 2013). Administering School Lunch Participation and Non-participation Based Surveys to Middle School Students. The Journal of Child Nutrition and Management. 37(2). Retrieved from: http://sna.dev.networkats.com/5–News-and-Publications/4–The-Journal-of-Child-Nutrition-and-Management/Fall-2013/Volume-37,-Issue-2,-Fall-2013—Rushing/

Rushing, K. and Asperin, A. E. (Spring 2012). Building the School Nutrition Program Brand Personality Within the School Setting. The Journal of Child Nutrition and Management. Retrieved from: http://schoolnutrition.org/5–News-and-Publications/4–The-Journal-of-Child-Nutrition-and-Management/Spring-2012/Volume-36,-Issue-I,-Spring-2012—Rushing,-Asperin/

Poster Sessions

Title Date added Download
BarriersBenefitsSupportingConservationPractices_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
BestPracticeGuideImprovingHSParticipationNSLP_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
BestPracticeGuideIncreaseMJHSParticipation_SNAANC2015_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
BestPracticesSNPServingStudentswithspecialnutritionneeds_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
BestPracticesSummerFoodServicePrograms_SNAANC2016 April 02, 2018 Download
BestPracticesWellnessCACFP_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
BrandingSNP_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
CKS_DistrictLevelSNP_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
CKS_StateAgencyCNP_SNAANC2014_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
CompetenciesSuccessfulSND_SNAANC2010_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
DeterminingCommonVocabulary_SNAANC2012_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
DevelopmentMJHSStudentSurveys_SNAANC2012_poster April 02, 2018 Download
DistrictAdministratorPerceptionCompentencies_SNAANC2011_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
EmergencyPreparednessResource_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
EmergencyPreparednessSNP_SNAANC2011_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
EquipmentPurchasingFacilityDesignSNP_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
ExaminingConservationPracticesSNP_SNAANC2011_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
ExploringSNPPreferenceUSDARecipes_SNAANC2014_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
FarmtoSchool_SNAANC2014_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
FocusGroupsDieteticStudents_SNAANC2011_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
FoodSafetyPrograms_SNAANC2010_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
FreeandReducedPriceMeals_SNAANC2016_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
GoingGreenSNP_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
GreeningSchoolNutritionScene_SNAANC2014_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
GuideAdministeringSchoolLunchSatisfactionSurveyMJHS_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
GY08_Project_4_PosterFNCE April 02, 2018 Download
GY14_Project3_ItTakesACommunity_Poster_Lewis April 02, 2018 Download
HealthierUSSchoolChallengeAward_SNAANC2014_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
HealthierUSSchoolChallengeLunchesvshomelunches_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
HealthMenuChoicesSNP_SNAANC2012_poster April 02, 2018 Download
HSOpinionsPointofSelection_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
ImplementationLocalWellnessPolicies_SNAANC2011_poster April 02, 2018 Download
InClassroomBreakfast_SNAANC2012_poster April 02, 2018 Download
Inclassroombreakfastmenus_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
JobFunctionsTrainingNeedsSACNP_SNAANC2012_poster April 02, 2018 Download
JobFunctionsTrainingSACNP_SNAANC2010_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
KidsTalkMilk_SNAANC2015_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
KPIUtilization_SNAANC2015_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
LocalWellnessResource_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
MarketingPracticesSummerFoodService_SNAANC2016 April 02, 2018 Download
MarketingSNPResourceGuide_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
MenuPlanningNSLB_SNAANC2011_poster April 02, 2018 Download
MiddleJuniorHighSchoolParticipation_SNAANC2011_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
NutrientContentLunchesHigherIncomeElementaryStudents_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
NutritionInformationHSAffectPurchases_SNAANC2010_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
NutritionLiteracySNM_SNAANC2010_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
PerceptionsSNDEquipmentPurchasingandFacilityDesignProjects_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
PointofServiceSystemsSNP_SNAANC2016 April 02, 2018 Download
PracticesPerceptionsSNPObtainHealtheirUSAward_SNAANC2013_poster April 02, 2018 Download
RoleSNPSustainabilityLocalWellnessPolicyMS_SNAANC2011_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
SchoolLunchExperienceSurvey_SNAANC2009_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
SNDAIIIStudy_SNAANC2010_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
SNDUsePerceptionsUSDARecipes_SNAANC2015_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
SuccessionPlanningSND_SNAANC2011_poster April 02, 2018 Download
SustainabilitySchoolWellness_SNAANC2012_poster April 02, 2018 Download
TeamNutritionResources_SNAANC2010_Poster April 02, 2018 Download
Web Based Guide SNP Dietetics Students_SNAANC2012_poster April 02, 2018 Download

Research Briefs

Title Date added Download
Insight_62 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_61 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_60 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_59 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_58 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_57 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_56 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_55 February 16, 2018 Download
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Insight_51 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_50 February 16, 2018 Download
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Insight_45 February 16, 2018 Download
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Insight_43 February 16, 2018 Download
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Insight_41 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_40 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_39 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_38 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_37 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_36 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_35 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_34 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_33 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_32 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_31 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_30 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_29 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_28 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_27 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_26 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_25 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_24 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_23 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_22 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_21 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_20 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_19 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_18 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_17 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_16 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_15 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_14 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_13 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_12 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_11 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_10 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_09 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_08 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_07 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_06 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_05 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_04 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_03 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_02 February 16, 2018 Download
Insight_01 February 16, 2018 Download

Technical Reports

Title Date added Download
Assessing Point-of-Service Systems in School Nutrition Programs in the United States April 02, 2018 Download
Branding the School Nutrition Program: Building the Foodservice Personality April 02, 2018 Download
Case Study Approach Examining Local Wellness Policy Development and the Perceived Impact to the School Commmunity April 02, 2018 Download
CKS for Child Care Providers in CACFP Operations April 02, 2018 Download
CKS for District-Level School Nutrition Professionals in the 21st Century April 02, 2018 Download
CKS Needed for State Agency Child Nutrition Professionals in the 21st Century April 02, 2018 Download
Practices and Perceptions of School Nutrition Professionals Toward Obtaining the HealthierUS School Challenge Award April 02, 2018 Download
CKS of Effective School Nutrition Assistants/Technicians April 02, 2018 Download
CKS for SN Managers in the 21st Century August 16, 2018 Download
CKS of Effective School Nutrition Managers in the 21st Century April 02, 2018 Download
Competency-Based Performance Appraisals for School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians April 02, 2018 Download
Cost Variables Associated with Producing and Serving a Reimbursable National School Lunch Program (NSLP) Snack for Children in After-school Care Programs April 02, 2018 Download
GY08_Project4_CACFPBestPractices_TechnicalReport April 02, 2018 Download
Determining Factors Impacting the Decision of Middle/Junior High School Students to Participate in the National School Lunch Program April 02, 2018 Download
Determining the Job Functions of Child Care Providers in CACFP Operations April 02, 2018 Download
Development of Middle/Junior High School Student Surveys to Measure Factors that Impact Participation In and Satisfaction With The National School Lunch Program April 02, 2018 Download
Determining the Perceptions, Practices, and the Perceived Barriers Associated with School Professionals Serving the Nutritional Needs of the Pre-K Child in the Public-School Setting April 02, 2018 Download
Effectiveness of In-Classroom Breakfast Programs April 02, 2018 Download
Essential Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for School Nutrition Success April 02, 2018 Download
Evaluating the Application of NFSMI Training on the HealthierUS School Challenge in School Nutrition Operations April 02, 2018 Download
Examining Diversity in the School Nutrition Workforce April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring Factors that Affect the School Lunch Experience of High School Students Participating in the National School Lunch Program April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring Green/Environmental Conservation in the School Nutrition Setting: Results of a National Survey April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge Among School Nutrition Managers April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring the Need for Web-Based Training Among School Nutrition Directors April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring School Nutrition Professionals’ Preferences of USDA Recipes and R4HK Competition Recipes for Meeting USDA Meal Pattern Requirements April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring Standard Child Nutrition Key Performance Indicators April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring the Impact of Productions and Equipment Decisions on the Operation of School Nutrition Programs April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring the Uniqueness of Child Nutrition Programs in Large School Districts April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring Trends and Barriers to Implementation of Branding Concepts in the School Nutrition Setting April 02, 2018 Download
Farm to School: Identifying Applied Research and Operational Resource Needs and Issues of Farm to School Programs April 02, 2018 Download
Feasibility of Offering Reimbursable Meals to High School Students Through Vending Machines April 02, 2018 Download
Financial Management Benchmarks for School Nutrition April 02, 2018 Download
Going Green! A Case Study Approach Examining Green and Environmental Conservation Practices in School Nutrition Programs April 02, 2018 Download
Got Milk! Exploring How Student Preferences Impact Their Milk Selection in Schools April 02, 2018 Download
Greening the School Nutrition Scene! A Guide for Developing and Sustaining Green/Environmental Conservation Practices for School Nutrition Professionals April 02, 2018 Download
Comparison of the NSLP Lunches and Lunches Brought from Home in Four Elementary Schools Receiving HealthierUS School Challenge Awards April 02, 2018 Download
ICN Best Practice Guide for Increasing Middle/Junior High School Student Participation and Satisfaction in the National School Lunch Program April 02, 2018 Download
Identification of Issues Associated with Operating School Nutrition Programs in Districts with Less Than 30,000 Student Enrollment April 02, 2018 Download
Identification of the Prevalence of School Age Children with Special Nutrition Needs and the Perceived Barriers, Resources and Training Needed by School Nutrition Professionals to Serve Them April 02, 2018 Download
Identifying Emergency Preparedness and Readiness to Respond to Issues Faced by School Nutrition Professionals April 02, 2018 Download
CA08_HACCPPrinciplesSNPs_TechnicalReport April 02, 2018 Download
School Wellness Policy: Readiness of Principals to Implement Changes April 02, 2018 Download
Training Needs Assessment of Adult Day Care Providers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program April 02, 2018 Download
In Classroom Breakfast Programs: Best Practices April 02, 2018 Download
Investigation of Factors Impacting Participation of High School Students in the National School Lunch Program April 02, 2018 Download
School Nutrition Professionals' Involvement in the Equipment Purchasing and Facility and Design Process April 02, 2018 Download
Investigation of School Professionals' Perceptions and Practices Regarding Issues Influencing Recess Placement in Elementary Schools April 02, 2018 Download
Investigation of School Professionals' and Parents' Attitudes Toward School Wellness Implementation in Elementary Schools April 02, 2018 Download
Nutrition Information at Point of Selection in High Schools: Does it Affect Entree Choices? April 02, 2018 Download
School Nutrition Professionals' Perceptions Regarding Their Roll in Supporting and Contributing to School Wellness April 02, 2018 Download
Investigation of the Job Functions and Training Needs of State Agency Child Nutrition Professionals April 02, 2018 Download
School Nutrition Program Utilization of the NFSMI FUNDamentals Financial Management Software April 02, 2018 Download
Team Nutrition Local Wellness Demonstration Project Volume 1 April 02, 2018 Download
Job Functions and Training Needs of State Agency Child Nutrition Professionals April 02, 2018 Download
NFSMI Research Agenda Conference: Linking Research to Practice April 02, 2018 Download
Sustainability of School Wellness Policy Initiatives April 02, 2018 Download
Marketing the School Nutrition Program Resource Guide for School Nutrition Professionals April 02, 2018 Download
Innovative Marketing Strategies and Delivery Methods Used in Effective Summer Food Service Programs April 02, 2018 Download
Training and Educational Resource Needs of Child Care Professionals Participating in the CACFP April 02, 2018 Download
A Guide for Administering School Lunch Satisfaction and Participation Surveys to Middle/Junior High School Students April 02, 2018 Download
Nutrition and Wellness in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Programs April 02, 2018 Download
Evaluation of Regional Team Up for School Nutrition Success Workshops April 02, 2018 Download
Team Up for School Nutrition Success April 02, 2018 Download
Team Up for School Nutrition Success State Mentor Training April 02, 2018 Download
Exploring the Role of the School Nutrition Program in the Sustainability of School Wellness Policy Initiatives in the Middle School Setting April 04, 2018 Download
Succession Planning for Management-Level Staff in School Nutrition Programs April 04, 2018 Download
Development of a Resource to Sustain and Strengthen Local Wellness Initiatives April 04, 2018 Download
Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program November 28, 2017 Download
Implementation of HACCP-based Food Safety Programs in School Nutrition Programs November 28, 2017 Download
Overcoming Barriers to Participation in the Summer Food Service Program - An Identification of Best Practice Solutions November 30, 2017 Download

Key Performance Indicators

Title Date added Download
Resource November 27, 2017 Download
Essential KPI Interactive Spreadsheet September 26, 2018 Download

Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills for School Nutrition Managers

Title Date added Download
Job Description Template July 19, 2018 Download
School Nutrition Manager Competency Based Performance Appraisal July 19, 2018 Download
School Nutrition Manager's Individual Mentor Plan July 19, 2018 Download
Resource August 16, 2018 Download

Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills for Child Care Provers in CACFP

Title Date added Download
CKS-for-Child-Care-Providers-in-CACFP September 19, 2018 Download

 Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills for District-Level School Nutrition Professionals

Title Date added Download
CKS-for-District-Level-School-Nutrition-Professionals September 19, 2018 Download

Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills for State Agency Child Nutrition Professionals

Title Date added Download
CKS-for-State-Agency-Child-Nutrition-Professionals September 19, 2018 Download

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